Strategies du traduction dans le sous-titrage: Le cas du film Tears of the Sun. Assessing media accessibility for the hearing impaired through subtitling. He based his examples on extracts of "Gone with the wind". His study enabled him to explain the mechanism through which meaning is formed and reworded during the process of film dubbing. Analysis of the major types of synchronisation phonetic, syntactic and artistic on which dubbing quality depends shows that cinematographic and AV dubbing requires equivalence at two levels namely sound and meaning.
In another article, Soh presented a dubbing text as a complex fabric in which AV elements and gestures play their role. According to him, the translation of the linguistic elements should take into account the weight of image and sound elements. He then concluded that the dubbing text is a compound made up of the image track, the sound track, and the paralinguistic elements of the message that these elements come together to produce the dubbing text.
He discussed the effectiveness of the strategies used and concluded that most of the difficulties were related to linguistic and cultural variations as well as to the technical requirements of dubbing and proposed domestication and adaptation as solutions to these problems. Eloundou examined the difficulties faced by translators in the dubbing of Nigerian films into French. She concluded that the dubbing was performed by amateurs who have virtually little or no mastery of AVT norms, and proposed solutions for improving on the quality of dubbed products. In the same manner, Mbohli did a similar study which was based on the impact of non-verbal communication in the dubbing of Nigerian films into French.
Teuma on her part carried out a study based on the influence of viewing habits on AVT preferences, using the case of Anglophones in Cameroon. As can be seen, very few studies have so far been carried out in dubbing. One of the reasons for this handicap is that dubbing is being taught in ASTI only at the introductory stage and the building of a dubbing studio is envisaged. Secondly, there are no Cameroonian professionals practicing this mode on any of the TV channels.
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This is because the construction of a dubbing studio and training in dubbing is very expensive, very demanding, and time consuming as compared to subtitling. Due to the above difficulties, many students shy away from carrying any research on this AVT mode and there are so far, barely a few studies as indicated in Table 2. The influence of viewing habits on audiovisual translation preferences: The case of Anglophones in Cameroon with Dubbing. The only studies carried out so far on voice-over see Table 3 below are on the quality of edited and broadcast voice-over materials of TV interviews in CRTV, as well as an analysis of voice-over in CRTV.
Enow in her thesis, assessed and evaluated the quality of edited and broadcasted TV interviews, looked at the technical aspects of voice-over translation in order to highlight the impact of the loss of meaning and the impact it will have on its ability to portray authenticity both in content and visual aspects. She found that the respect of voice-over standards was a pre-condition for an effective transfer of the message from source text ST to the target text TT and that the loss of meaning in voice-over translation might act as a stumbling block to the understanding of the message of the original text.
She further confirmed that the lack of synchrony was responsible for ineffective voice-over which therefore kills the feeling of reality and authenticity. Ayonghe and Enow , analysed the practice of voice-over in CRTV, the government media house and their study revealed that voice-over was practiced mostly in newscasts and done by the journalists themselves and not by professionals which lead sometimes to very poor voice-over quality in terms of meaning and content. It can be deduced that voice-over is carried out on a daily basis over the Cameroonian TV even though it is done by the journalists themselves.
This mode is also taught in ASTI at an introductory stage. It should be stated here that most researchers worldwide shy away from carrying out research in this AVT mode Enow, because over the years, while subtitling and dubbing have been attracting interest and have occupied central stage with a respectable number of publications in both research and teaching at university level, voice-over has been left aside or not clearly understood, as pointed out by Gambier and Suomela-Salmi , Franco and Orero The studies in this section include a mixture of two or all three AVT types discussed in this paper as shown in Table 4.
Wakep focused on an AV domain which has not been covered by the rest. Similarly, Ayonghe and Wakep demonstrated the importance of Computer Assisted Translation within the localization framework of the Mobile Telephone Network in Cameroon. Tawah sought to assess the potentials and prospects of dubbing and voice-over in Cameroon. Results here revealed that dubbed and voiced-over programmes were very useful to the Cameroonian audience. However, these modes faced problems of synchronisation which, if solved, would go a long way to impact positively on the country.
His findings revealed that AVT was still at an embryonic stage and was plagued with many non-professionals. Tchamda did a study on the influence of the image in the AVT of the film Hercule, Le Bossu de Notre Dame, Raiponce Trousdale, and found that the perception and interpretation of the reality described in the source text could be influenced by the images from the film. Sous-titrage ou Doublage interlingual au Cameroun?
Hebga, Meinrad P. (Meinrad Pierre)
There are several reasons why AVT may still be lagging behind other forms of translation in Cameroon. This makes it difficult for these channels to produce their own AVT programmes. Although these institutions train professionals for the AV sector, it is obvious that following the rapid changes which are sweeping over the information landscape, especially at the level of technological innovation, considerable efforts have to be made so as to adapt these human resources to the new challenges.
This option is very promising in terms of job creation because with about local languages in Cameroon, this country would have been a natural fertile ground for AVT. Unfortunately, the stakeholders are not encouraging these translation modes.
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Teaching AVT in universities is simply not enough, the government, the TV stations and other stakeholders have to contribute. Lack of professional training leads to the production of poor AVT programmes. Consequently, some of these companies broadcast all sorts of AV programmes ranging from feature films through music, documentaries and news articles to adverts, mostly of foreign production and often supplemented by a few locally produced programmes within the same range Nfor, Thus, most programmes broadcast on CRTV are dubbed by foreign companies and this automatically slows down the production of local programmes for the local viewers.
This is even compounded by non-professionals of the domain who make things difficult for the filmmakers by trying to add their own influence to the production of the film Senngwa, This feeling has not only hampered unity, but also seems to plague the Cameroonian film industry where films are generally produced and marketed as if the country was monolingual and monocultural.
Most studies delved on how to translate or adapt cultural references, humor, taboo language, sociolects, etc.
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Dubbing and voice-over have on the whole been relatively little studied, probably to some extent because of the division of labor between the translator, the adapter and the actors, and the responsibilities that it implies, and partly also because any analysis entails a considerable initial effort of transcription Gambier, The research methods used by the Cameroonian researchers are similar. They usually used corpora, questionnaires and interviews for data collection. Based on the above facts, the following research studies in AVT still have to be carried out in the country:.
This mode of translation could play a key role in the development of the Cameroonian film industry in particular, and the AV sector in general. This equally applies to dubbing and voice-over AVT modes. The results of such assessments can be used to improve on the development and the production of local films and programmes. It has been demonstrated from this assessment that the landscape of AVT in Cameroon has been carried out within the Cameroonian context and with reference to published information on the subject which clearly highlights the fact that different AVT modes are specific for each country especially in cases wherein the practice of AVT has a long history.
Dubbing and voice-over modes are still partially at an embryonic stage, and are reported to be mostly practiced by amateurs in the profession of journalism rather than by well-trained audiovisual translators.
The outcome of this study has accordingly demonstrated that Cameroon is still to choose and then promote its AVT mode. It is conclusive from this study that, the way forward in this sector lies with all the major stakeholders: the media, the Cameroon audience, the teachers, the learners and most importantly the government.
consplanbeidabga.gq By carrying out this exercise, CRTV will eventually know which mode is most suited for the Cameroonian audience. Ako, M. Arrey, D. Ategha, A. Awono, A. Ayonghe, L. The Translation Journal, October Issue. African Journal of Social Sciences. Vol 5, Number 1, pp Journal of the Cameroon academy of Sciences Vol. New Series: Volume 1, Number 2, June Pp Box Bamenda, pp. Vol 4, Number 3, November Berman, A. Chaume, F.
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